Unit I Exogenic Processes: Weathering - factors, types and products of weathering. Physical and chemical processes. Soil, factors affecting soil formation and soil profile. Laterite. Mass wasting - types, causes and control. (6 Hrs)

Unit II Geological agents. Cycle of erosion. Streams – Stream as a geological agent. Drainage basin and drainage pattern. Stream erosion, transportation and deposition. Development and evolution of fluvial landforms- different stages of fluvial evolution- youth, mature and old age stages. (8 Hrs)

Unit III Hydrologic cycle. Origin and occurrence of groundwater. Water table, types of aquifers. Groundwater as a geological agent- erosional and depositional features. Karst topography, stalagmite, stalactite, caves. (6 Hrs)

Unit IV Oceans- salinity of ocean water. Waves, currents and tides. Coastal erosion, transportation and deposition. Classification of coastlines and coastal morphology.Eustatic sea level changes. Physiographic features of ocean floor: continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise, submarine canyons, abyssal plains, MORs, deep sea trenches, guyots, seamounts.Coral reefs- types, their formation and distribution. (8 Hrs)

 Unit V Glaciers– Formation, movement and morphology. Types of glaciers. Erosion, transportation and deposition by glaciers. Glacial landforms. Global warming and its effects on glaciers. Geological action of winds. Landforms of Aeolian origin. (8 Hrs)



1. Ahamed E. (1972) Coastal Geomorphology of India. Orient Longman, New Delhi. 2. ThornburyW. D. (1968). Principles of Geomorphology, Wiley. 3. Plummer Carlson, Mc Geary (2003).Physical Geology. McGraw–Hill. 4. Weisberg J, and Parish, H. (1974). Introductory Oceanography. McGraw Hill. 5. Arthur Holmes, Principles of Physical Geology (Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1944 and New York: Ronald Press, 1945. 6. Bloom A, Geomorphology– A Systematic analysis of Late Cenozoic Landforms (Third edition) Waveland Press Inc. 7. Kale Vishwas S, Gupta. Introduction to Geomorphology, Orient Black Swan (2000) 8. Sparks B. W. Geomorphology, Longmans (1969)