Preparation 1 o, 2 o and 3o alcohols using Grignard reagent, ester hydrolysis, reduction of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters (Bouveault-Blanc reduction).

Reactions - with sodium, HX (Lucas test), esterification, oxidation (with PCC, alkaline KMnO4, OsO4, acidic dichromate, conc. HNO3). Oppenauer oxidation (with mechanism).  Ascent and descent of alcohol series.

Diols: Preparation - hydroxylation of alkenes, hydrolysis of epoxides. Reactions - oxidative cleavage of diols using lead tetraacetate and periodic acid. Pinacol - Pinacolone 

Phenols: Preparation -cumene hydroperoxide method, from diazonium salts. Reactions -Electrophilic substitution - nitration, halogenation and sulphonation. Reimer- Tiemann reaction and Fries rearrangement (with mechanisms).  Preparation and uses of nitrophenols, picric acid, resorcinol and quinol.  Ethers and Epoxides: Preparation - ethers and epoxides - Williamson’s ether synthesis.  Reactions of ethers - cleavage with HI. Zeisel’s method of estimation of alkoxy groups. Reactions of epoxides - with alcohols, ammonia derivatives and LiAlH4. rearrangement (with mechanism).